API double ram blowout preventer
A blowout preventer is a large, specialized valve or similar mechanical device, usually installed redundantly in stacks, used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells. In addition to controlling the downhole (occurring in the drilled hole) pressure and the flow of oil and gas, blowout preventers are intended to prevent tubing (e.g. drill pipe and well casing), tools and drilling fluid from being blown out of the wellbore (also known as bore hole, the hole leading to the reservoir) when a blowout threatens. Blowout preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig (the equipment system used to drill a wellbore) and environment, and to the monitoring and maintenance of well integrity; thus blowout preventers are intended to provide fail-safety to the systems that include them.
Most blowout preventer (BOP) stacks contain at least one annular BOP at the top of the BOP stack, and one or more ram-type preventers below.
Ram blowout preventer
A ram type BOP is similar in operation to a gate valve, but uses a pair of opposing steel plungers, rams.
The rams extend toward the center of the wellbore to restrict flow or retract open in order to permit flow. The inner and top faces of the rams are fitted with packers (elastomeric seals) that press against each other, against the wellbore, and around tubing running through the wellbore. Outlets at the sides of the BOP housing (body) are used for connection to choke and kill lines or valves.
Four common types of ram blocks: pipe ram, blind ram, shear ram, and blind shear ram.
Pipe rams close around a drill pipe, restricting flow in the annulus (ring-shaped space between concentric objects) between the outside of the drill pipe and the wellbore, but do not obstruct flow within the drill pipe.
Variable-bore pipe rams can accommodate tubing in a wider range of outside diameters than standard
pipe rams, but typically with some loss of pressure capacity and longevity.
Blind rams (also known as sealing rams), which have no openings for tubing, can close off the well when the well does not contain a drill string or other tubing, and seal it.
Shear rams cut through the drill string or casing with hardened steel shears.
Blind shear rams (also known as shear seal rams, or sealing shear rams) are intended to seal a wellbore, even when the bore is occupied by a drill string, by cutting through the drill string as the rams close off the well. The upper portion of the severed drill string is freed from the ram, while the lower portion may be crimped and the "fish tail" captured to hang the drill string off the BOP.
Respectively are: a. Blind ram b. Pipe ram c. Shear ram
BOP Control Unit
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